Please respond to your peerâ€™s posts, from an FNP perspective. To ensure that your responses are substantive, use at least two of these prompts:
- Do you agree with your peersâ€™ assessment?
- Take an opposing view to a peer and present a logical argument supporting an alternate opinion.
- Share your thoughts on how you support their opinion and explain why.
- Present new references that support your opinions.
Please be sure to validate your opinions and ideas with citations and references in APA format. Substantive means that you add something new to the discussion, you arenâ€™t just agreeing. This is also a time to ask questions or offer information surrounding the topic addressed by your peers. Personal experience is appropriate for a substantive discussion and should be correlated to the literature.Be sure to review your APA errors in your reference list, specifically you have capitalization errors in some words of the titles.Include the DOI. Also, be sure you are italicizing titles of online sources.No more than 200 words maximum.
- In subsequent posts compare and contrast your findings with your fellow classmates.
- Identify factors that contribute to the health promotion, prevention, and treatment of the aging adult.
Incorporate cultural preferences, values, belief systems and behaviors related to healthcare, the older adult, and their families.
- Identify basic principles of the Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicators.
Sarah M’ response
Health Promotion, Prevention, and Treatment
Age brings a higher risk of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, arthritis, and cancer, which are the nationâ€™s leading drivers of illness, disability, deaths, and costs (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). The prevention of disease, further progression of disease, and the promotion of quality of life are key factors to health in the older adult. Services include screenings for chronic conditions such as cancer, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes, the administration of immunizations, and the provision of counseling about personal health behaviors and services can prevent disease, detect disease, guide a plan of care (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019).
Cultural Preferences, Values, Beliefs and Behaviors
Religion, culture, beliefs, and ethnic customs can influence how patients understand healthcare concepts, how they take care of themselves, and how they make decisions regarding their health (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2015). The practitioner should inquire about beliefs, preferences, and values in regard to healthcare. Some cultures and religions believe in prayer, folk prevention, or dietary restrictions. It is vital to assess the preferences of the patient, capabilities of the caregiver, and the expectations of both parties, if a successful care plan is to be established. The provider may experience a situation that may require the use of a cultural broker or cultural guide from the older person’s ethnic or religious background that can help the clinician understand the situation and offer culturally appropriate ways to work with the patient and family (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2015). Another topic that is sometimes uncomfortable, but important to discuss with the elderly patient and family is beliefs, preferences, and wishes about death and dying.
Healthy People 2020
The basic principle of Healthy People 2020 is to increase the proportion of older adults that have access to care, knowledge of diagnoses management, and participation in preventative care. The ultimate goal is to improve the health and function, eliminate disparities, promote good health, and achieve a positive quality of life in older adults (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2019). Leading healthcare indictors include disease and disability prevention and the provision of long-term services and support for the elder adult. Healthy People 2020 also puts an emphasis on quality care, safety, and environment of care for the aging adult.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2015). Health literacy universal precautions toolkit,
2nd Edition. Retrieved from https://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/quality-patient…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Promoting health for older adults. Retrieved
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2019). Older adults. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectiv…
Many factors play into an individualâ€™s decision to seek medical care or forego it. In the aging adult, these factors may include barriers to care, such as physical ability to seek out or get to a care provider, or the finances to cover the cost of care. At this time, there are many Americans that do not see a primary care physician on a regular basis which can lead to poor health outcomes in the future for a multitude of reasons. These may include but are not limited to lack of exposure to recommended immunization schedules such as influenza or pneumonia vaccines for the aging population, assessment of risk factors, such as smoking or alcohol use or abuse, as well as guidelines for cancer screenings. Not having a PCP may also lead to polypharmacy in the aging population when there is not consistent management by one provider. When older patients are on multiple medications prescribed by multiple providers, it can increase their risk of adverse effects from those medications. Ideally, according to Healthy People 2020, all Americans would have access to care and be under the regular supervision of a primary care provider to improve health outcomes. When patients are regularly seen by a PCP, they gain access to assessment for heart disease, bone health and mobility issues, weight control, psychological well-being, and the ability to carry out activities of daily living (Ham, Sloane, Warshaw, Potter, & Flaherty, 2014).
In the Healthy People 2020 school of thought, all Americans would have medical coverage, and easy access within their communities to healthcare services, including screening, prevention, and treatment. Leading health indicators would include: access to care, preventative services, mental health care, nutrition education and intervention, and substance/tobacco/alcohol use and abuse programs â€œMoreover, it concretely applies the ecological model of health, placing the individual biology of disease within the context of the entire life course as well as the social and physical environments where people live, work, lean, and play (Fiedling, Teutsch, & Koh, 2012). In this way, we can meet patients in their environment and be respectful of the cultural differences within a community. The key elements of cultural competence include: cultural humility, development of communication and knowing the â€œrightâ€ questions to ask, and knowledge of where to go to get further information to effectively treat the patient population you are serving (Ham, Sloane, Warshaw, Potter, & Flaherty, 2014). All cultures do not view health and illness the same, therefore, we can not treat patients of different cultures the same. As we grow in our experience and cultural awareness, we will be better suited to provide the best whole person care.
Fielding, J., Teutsch, S. & Koh, H. (2012). Health reform and health people initiative. American Journal of Public
Health, 102(1), 30-33.
Frost, R., Kharicha, K., Jovicic, A., Liljas, A.E., Iliffe, S., Manthorpe, J., et al. (2018). Identifying acceptable
components for home-based health promotion services for older people with mild frailty: A qualitative
study. Health & Social Care in the Community, 26(3), 393-403.
Ham, R., Sloane, P., Warshaw, G., Potter, J., & Flaherty, E. (2014). Hamâ€™s primary care geriatrics: A case-based
approach (6th ed.). PA: Elsevier, ISBN: 9780323089364