1)Chapter 15 â€“ From the week’s chapter reading, we learn from the author’s case studies that, despite the alleged importance of scientific advice in the policy-making process, its evident that scientific results are often not used. Why? The authors proposed a science-policy interface that would be realized by the inclusion of information visualization in the policy analysis process. That way, the gap between both fields can be addressed based on the current challenges of science-policy interfaces with visualizations.
Q: According to Shneiderman and Bederson (2003), information visualization emerged from research in human-computer interaction, computer science, graphics, visual design, psychology, and business. With this revelation in mind, identify, and discuss the benefits?
2)Chapter 16 â€“ Following the chapter reading, the authors assert that the twentieth century is considered as the century of population explosion and fossil fuels burning, environmental policies and the transition to effective use of renewable energy sources as a priority with a strategic focus on specific countries around the world. In addition, this move has created several different projects whose main focus is to formulate policies associated with climate change and energy governance. Many of the policies and projects identified aim to support the energy sources switching between fuels like fossils and nuclear power to renewables like solar, wind, and or water. Specifically, the chapter provides the foundations of policy implementation, and methods as well investigations of five policy implementation case studies through a comparative analysis.
Q2: Looking further into the chapter, theoretical grounds of policy implementation, Buse et al., (2012) argue that policy implementation is the execution of a formulated policy â€“ turning theory into practice. When turning theory into practice, the authors stated that it was common for certain observations. What are those observations? Briefly identify, and provide a brief discussion for each observation.