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Paraphrase and Summary PracticeA paraphrase represents a restated version of something written by the original author without using the same words. It indicates the meaning of the text, but the wording and structure are different from the original. Paraphrased material will be about the same length as the original work. Keep in mind that a paraphrase must contain a citation because the ideas originate from another source.A summary is similar to a paraphrase in that it consists of an original author’s ideas written without using the same words. A summary differs from a paraphrase in that it represents a condensed version of the main ideas.This handout can help you become more familiar with correctly paraphrasing information from a source. Use the following guidelines when paraphrasing or summarizing text:·         Read the information from the source, then go to a new page on the computer or close the book as you begin recording the main ideas. Any time you look back and forth from the source to the page you are writing on, you risk inadvertently copying from the source.·         Use your own words to record what you believe the author said.·         Add a citation.·         Check the source when you have finished writing to be sure you have written the content in your own words.Plagiarism results if any of the following elements are present in your paraphrase:·         Synonyms are substituted for some of the original words, but most of the other words remain the same.·         Three or four consecutive words in a phrase from the source are used without quotation marks.·         The citation is missing from your paraphrase. If no citation is used, the material appears to the reader as your own idea.Try It! Paraphrase and Summary PracticeTest yourself to see how well you can paraphrase and summarize information from a source. Remember to follow the guidelines to prevent plagiarism. After your practice, ask yourself the following questions, and make changes as necessary:·         Did you use any of the same words that appear in the original?·         Did you include a citation?1.      Original source:“Although even low levels of physical activity can provide some health benefits, evidence indicates that moderate to high levels of physical activity are required to provide major health benefits” (Powers, Dodd, & Jackson, 2014, Ch. 2). Note: when citing direct quotes, use page numbers whenever possible, but chapter and paragraph headings are also permissible if there are no page numbers, as in this ebook.Try paraphrasing:Possible paraphrase:A little exercise can be beneficial to our health, but activity that is more strenuous ensures that we remain as healthy as we can be (Powers, Dodd, & Jackson, 2014, Ch. 2). Note: when citing a paraphrase, it is best to include the page number. However, the use of chapters, headings, and paragraph numbers is permissible in the absence of a page number, as long as the citation is as specific as possible.2.      Original source:“A special kind of persuasive request is one that casts the request as a problem–solution message. With this strategy, you first present a problem that you and the readers share—called the common-ground persuasion technique—and then show how doing as you propose will solve the problem for all concerned” (Rentz & Lentz, 2014, Ch. 9).Try paraphrasing:Possible paraphrase:A problem–solution message can be used when you need to make a persuasive request. The problem presented will be one that is common to you and the audience, but you will show how that problem can be solved so that the outcome is beneficial for everyone (Rentz & Lentz, 2014, Ch. 9).3.      Original source:“The investments announced today, through USDA’sRural Business Enterprise Grant(RBEG) program, promote the development of small and emerging businesses in rural areas. RBEGs may also be used to help fund distance learning networks and employment-related adult education programs. Eligible applicants include local public entities, private non-profit corporations and federally recognized Indian Tribes” (Freeman, 2014, para.3).Try paraphrasing:Possible paraphrase:The Rural Business Enterprise Grant (RBEG) is offered to small and new businesses not located in cities. The grant can be applied toward education programs related to employment and is often used by local entities, nonprofits, and Native American tribes (Freeman, 2014, para.3).4.      Original source:“While we argue the need for selecting and focusing on a single model of critical thinking throughout a business curriculum, we also advocate enabling students to recognize the key elements of critical thinking across different representations.  Students ultimately need to be able to recognize and embrace critical thinking in their workplaces, even when it appears in a different form than the one they learned in school, as it undoubtedly will” (Bloch & Spataro, 2014).Try paraphrasing:Possible paraphrase:Bloch and Spataro (2014) argue that it is beneficial for students to focus on one model of critical thinking in their business curriculum, but that they must remain open to different models once they begin to apply critical thinking in the workplace.5.      Original source:Schawbel, D. (5 June 2014). Become a LinkedIn power user. Career Services. Retrieved from http://www.phoenix.edu/forward/careers/2014/06/how-to-use-linkedin-to-find-job-opportunities.htmlTry summarizing the short article above:Possible summary:Author Dan Schawbel (2014) offers some useful tips to make the most of a LinkedIn account. You should have a complete and detailed profile that adequately describes your skills, interests, and experience. You should also become affiliated with groups that are pertinent to your industry. When making connections, do not be shy about adding people you know and have worked with. A large connection base can be helpful when researching potential employers. Reaching out to your connections can provide you with valuable information and new connections as you search. The process can take time, so it is best not to give up easily. LinkedIn can be useful for your career if you are persistent.6.      Original work:Smiley, T. (14 July 2014). How to turn an interview into a conversation. Career Services. Retrieved from http://www.phoenix.edu/career-services/articles/how-to-turn-an-interview-into-a-conversation.htmlTry summarizing the short article above:Possible summary:Tavis Smiley (2014) recommends a few methods for transitioning an interview into a conversation. He advocates for asking questions early to demonstrate that you are a good listener who is interested. Smiley also recommends asking open-ended questions. Rather than questions that provoke a one-word answer, end your questions with why, or how. It also helps to find out a little bit about your interviewer beforehand, using Google or LinkedIn. Finally, be sure your non-verbal communication skills are on point. If you use these techniques, the interviewer will not be aware that you were driving the conversation all along.

 
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