discussion and rebuttal

In a minimum of 200-300 words respond to six posts and support each response with two scientific references. Do not just respond that you agree or disagree, but discuss it intellectually as if you are at a scientific convention.


1) T2 D1 – V. H.

Trauma isn’t an uncommon experience among children, adolescents, and adults; abuse, domestic and community violence, grief, and natural disasters are all examples of trauma (Little & Akin-Little, 2009). When preparing to counsel a client who has experienced trauma, the therapist should be aware of a variety of issues the client might be facing, such as: psychological, somatic, cognitive, neurological, and behavioral factors.

Especially with children, somatic symptoms are common when they experience grief, loss, or abuse. Stomachaches, headaches, and loss of appetite may be common complaints of somatic symptoms (Jackson-Cherry, 2018). Neurological issues, such as increased cortisol and norepinephrine response in the brain, along with changes in the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex are common in those who have experienced trauma (Bremner, 2006). Behavioral symptoms usually involve trying to avoid activities that might trigger memories of the traumatic event and withdrawing from social interaction. Some cognitive issues that may arise in a client are loss of concentration, confusion, or distorted thinking the client may have that the event was his/her fault in some way. Lastly, there are several psychological factors that a counselor should be aware of when working with a trauma client: depression, fear, anger, anxiety, guilt, and shame (Little & Akin-Little, 2009).

Bremner J. D. (2006). Traumatic stress: effects on the brain. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 8(4), 445–461.

Jackson-Cherry, L. R., & Erford, B. T. (2018). Crisis assessment, intervention, and prevention(3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Little, S. G., & Akin-Little, A. (2009). Trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy. In Behavioral interventions in schools: Evidence-based positive strategies. (pp. 325–333). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1037/11886-0…

2) T2 D1 – M. D.

Many issues can arise for a person who is dealing with a trauma. Children are especially susceptible to somatic symptoms. These may include stomach aches, headaches, or loss of appetite (Jackson-Cherry & Erford, 2018). Behaviorally children may also revert back to an earlier stage of development. Chronically dealing with trauma can cause neurological and cognitive issues. Memory issues and inability to focus are common cognitive and neurological symptoms associated with trauma. Behaviorally this can vary greatly based on the trauma and the individual. Substance abuse, sexually acting out, overeating, and self-harm are all behavioral issues that can result out of trauma. Anxiety and depression are two major psychological issues that can be caused by trauma. In addition, sexual disorders may result out of trauma as well. It is important as a counselor to have a good understanding of what trauma symptoms look like. Trauma is a complicated subject and sometimes people downplay things they went through even though it did indeed traumatize them and may be the root cause of many of their symptoms. Being able to recognize the signs and symptoms and have a foundational knowledge of trauma informed care and treatment methods is critical for a professional counselor.

Jackson-Cherry, L. R., & Erford, B. T. (2018). Crisis assessment, intervention, and prevention(3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

3) T2 D2 – T. D.

Hello Everyone,

Professional counselors are required by law to be competent and credentialed in their chosen field of specialization, and trauma counselors are no different. They must possess a minimum of a bachelor degree from an accredited college or university. Obtaining a graduate degree is the next step, and in addition, a trauma counselor is required to adhere to their state regulations in regards to obtaining licensure. Trauma counselors are also required to complete 2000- 3000 hours of supervised experience. Continuing education is also imperative. Counselors should participate in continuing education to effectively compare their professional behavior with the standard of care, and routinely review professional codes of ethics as a part of their ongoing personal education (Jackson- Cherry & Erford, 2018). We (professional counselors) will more than likely work in a variety of mental health settings, and subsequently, there is a possibility that we will work with trauma survivors; thus it is imperative that our training include foundational trauma knowledge and trauma-competent clinical reasoning skills (Paige, DeVore, Change, & Whisenhunt, 2017).

(Trauma) counselors have a responsibility to “do no harm” to the client, and therefore offering a client assistance that is outside of the scope of our competency is damaging. If a counselor knows that he or she is not credentialed in an area, or has little to no experience in the field of trauma, he or she should seek supervision and consultation from a clinician who is more experienced. In addition, the counselor should refer the client to a more competent clinician.

Jackson-Cherry, L. R., & Erford, B. T. (2018). Crisis assessment, intervention, and prevention(3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Paige, M., DeVore, J., Chang, C. Y., & Whisenhunt, J. (2017). The Trauma-Competent Clinician: A Qualitative Model of Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes Supporting Adlerian-Based Trauma Psychotherapy. Journal of Individual Psychology, 73(1), 8–37. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1353/jip.201…


4) T2 D1 – L. M.

If I was providing a psychological test to a counseling client and an issue arose in which your personal ethics were in conflict with the established state and/or federal laws and/or codes of ethics it is our responsibility to remedy the impairment so that we may provide the best care possible. Viable solutions include seeking assistance from fellow co-workers or an advisor about how they may have dealt with common issues in the past. Depending on how severe the conflict is within the counselor, professional assistance can also be sought to get to the root of this issue. The counselor may also limit, or even temporarily suspend therapeutic sessions until they have had the time to resolve their personal conflict that is preventing them from providing ethical care. Termination of the professional relationship and referral to another counselor should be the last resort. Only if the counselor is unable to provide the best care and able to put their personal feelings to the side, should the counselor move forward with termination (ACA, 2014).

American Counseling Association. (2014). Your passion. Your profession. Our purpose. Retrieved from: https://www.counseling.org/resources/aca-code-of-e…

5) T2 D1 – A. G.

In a situation like this, I would make every effort to ensure first and foremost that I was not inadvertently doing any harm to the client. I would next reassess myself as well as my professionalism or competence and determine if I am in need of a professional mentor, supervisory assistance, or more training to ensure that I fall back in line with ethical guidelines and state/federal laws. For example, I may think that it is best to administer assessments to clients that are in denial about their current emotional state or psychological functioning in an environment that is distracting, noisy, or not suitable for proper focus needed for the assessment. I may not think that this will present much of a problem because my professional ethics supports the idea that some clients would prefer a change of environment and meet for sessions in non-contemporary counseling atmospheres in order to become more relaxed with the therapeutic process.

However, with regards to providing assessments, “counselors provide an appropriate environment for the administration of assessments” (ACA, 2014, p. 11). The client should be in an environment free from distractions and comfortable, yet I may focus so much on the aspect of making the client comfortable enough to open up that I fail to realize the need to provide the proper place to administer the assessment. For instance, if I had a client that loved the park and everything about nature and during our third session together for severe anxiety and depression I decide that it’s time for a psychological assessment, but we meet at a park close to the client’s home, she fails to complete the assessment because she becomes so fascinated with the birds that she refuses to answer any of the question, thereby insisting that she does not have a need for therapy. Depending on how I convince her of the importance for the assessment, she could very well report me and suggest that I am not in ethical guidelines because the park is too distracting for her to concentrate on a test. Therefore, she was not able to get the help she actually needed because she felt she was not in a position to take the assessment.


American Counseling Association. (2014). Code of ethics. Alexandria, VA. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/docs/ethics/2014-aca-cod…

6) T2 D2 – D. H.

Bias Can Lead to Systemic Problems

Cohen and Swerdlik (2018) point out that psychological test and assessments that do not take cultural difference into account can perpetuate bias such as test takers receiving low scores, and then being mislabeled as inferior, and ultimately leading to less economic, employment and educational opportunity. Misapplied conclusions to test can simultaneously give one cultural group a disadvantage and another group privileged treatment.

ACA Code of Ethics

ACA (2014) states the when using assessments counselors must consider clients’ cultural background to make proper evaluation, assessment or interpretation. By using assessment tools developed culturally specific for educational, mental health, psychological, and career assessments. Counselors promotes wellness of client and make appropriate accommodations for inequities and disabilities. Counselors realize many factors the impact test and analyze test results in context of age, color, culture, disability, ethnic group, gender, race, language preference, religion, spirituality, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status.

Cultural Sensitivity to Adversity

Counselor demonstrate cultural sensitivity that culture affects how clients’ problems are experienced and attribute meaning. Low income and cultural traumas are relevant factors when diagnosing mental disorders. Counselors awareness of history social injustices where misdiagnosis and pathologizing may perpetuate stereotypes that label persons as drug dealers or criminals. Counselors be thoughtful to negative implications of a diagnosis.Many diverse communities place stigma on mental health disorders and counselors should avoid from reporting a diagnosis that it would harm to the client (ACA, 2014).


American Counseling Association (2014). ACA Code of Ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.

Cohen, R. J., & Swerdlik, M.E. (2018). Psychological Testing and Assessment: An Introduction to Test and Measurements (9th ed). McGraw Hill Education. Retrieved from http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/mcgraw-h…

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