class and gender inequality

Please read the question for this discussion thread carefully and answer it in details.

Class Inequality: What are three types of social mobility present in the American Society? Give at least one example of each mobility. Gender Inequality: What is Glass Ceiling? How does it apply to women? Please quote the textbook chapters 10 and 11. (3 pts)

Each student is required to reply to two other student separately whether you agree or disagree or add any other additional thoughts . (2 pts)

1. The three types of social mobility present in the American Society are intergenerational mobility, structural mobility, and exchange mobility. The textbook defines intergenerational mobility as “the change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next” (279). This can happen when the child of working class parents earns a Master’s degree and becomes a professional in some field. The child will experience an upward social mobility. The textbook defines structural mobility as “movement up or down the social class ladder that is due more to changes in the structures of society than to the actions of individuals” (279). An example of this is when the Housing Bubble Burst happened in 2007/2008. Many people lost their homes and had to declare bankruptcy as the cost of housing plummeted. People had bought houses at a high price with little or no down payment on a variable interest rate. When the higher interest rates were applied, they could no longer make their mortgage payments and they could not sell the house since the price had dropped so much. Many of these people experienced a downward social mobility. The textbook states that exchange mobility “occurs when large number of people move up and down the social class ladder, but, on balance, the proportions of the social classes remain about the same” (280). An example of this can be seen with advancements in computer technology. New computer technology has increased the demand for certain computer specialists. Some skilled workers in the computer field, however, have lost their jobs because of the exportation of production.

The textbook defines the glass ceiling as “the mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels at work” (320). The definition is pretty simple. Women are kept from opportunities that are opened to men simply because they are women. This is due to the belief that women are not as good as men in leadership roles and that women are more adequate at supporting roles. Although we have made much progress in gender equality, biased and baseless beliefs like these still exist.

2. Property, power and prestige are the controls of our society. Property includes belongings “such as buildings, land, animals, machinery” and other material possessions (Henslin, 258). Wealth is the amount of an individual’s possessions after it has been subtracted by their debts. Power is “the ability to get your way despite resistance” (Henslin, 262). In our society, becoming a doctor is a more prestigious job than a housekeeper due to the fact that there is a higher income and requires a larger deal of education. Prestige means respect and consideration.

Social mobility is the movement along the social class spectrum. The three types of social mobility include intergenerational mobility, structural mobility and exchange mobility. Intergenerational mobility is the “change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next” (Henslin, 273). An example of this could be if your parents were middle class while they were young and you (their offspring) got a high income job once you finish school, this would be considered intergenerational mobility but even more specifically, upward social mobility. Upward social mobility is moving upward on the social class ladder. If an individual is in a financially unstable position but figures a way to get a degree and a substantial job, this would be considered upward social mobility. The exact opposite of that is considered downward social mobility, or the moving down in the social class range. An example of downward social mobility would include a person who came from a wealthy background to not earn any sort of education and therefore, not have much responsibility earned in life. Structural mobility are the precedents that allow people to move upward or downward the social ladder. For example, if there are many hospitals here in Los Angeles, then the structural mobility for that specific area allows many doctors to be employed in that area. In other words, structural mobility is completely opportunity based in terms of being sufficient or scarce. The third type of social mobility is the exchange mobility. The exchange mobility is experience in which a faction of people move up or down the social ladder. An example of this could be if a new type of job is in trend, then the people together who are taking this job move up the ladder. Moving down as a group would be if farmers are needed to take care of crops because of the society’s needs, people would need to take those jobs and this as a result would be moving down through the exchange mobility.

A common phenomenon in the workplace is the glass ceiling. The glass ceiling is the unnoticeable barrier that limits women from transcending in their professions. Some men may believe that women are useful when it comes to support but are unable to hold the ability of leadership. It could be difficult for women to find the confidence to break through the glass ceiling and a common reason for this is sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is the forcing of sexual demands without consent and that are clearly unwanted. Of course, sexual harassment is not something that only takes place in women’s lives. “As the glass ceiling cracks, women are gaining entry into the top positions of society” (Henslin, 314). Over the centuries, we see immense improvement in terms of the power women have in our society and how it improves. The place women hold in today’s world is on the way to domination. We are closer to equality than we have ever been, as women feeling the confidence to take a stand every day.

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