biology questions asap

Can someone help me answer these questions and need each question properly labeled, VERY URGENT

1.)You are planning to travel to the planet Mars to be a member of a colony there. The colony needs to be self-sufficient for production of food, and will also need to maintain a stable environment with acceptable oxygen and low carbon dioxide concentrations. Assume that you will have access to water, that the colony will be housed in a gas-tight “bubble” through which sunlight may penetrate, and that the temperature in the “bubble” will be acceptable for life. (1) In addition to humans, what basic type of biological organisms must definitely be taken with you to Mars if you would like to survive beyond however long it will take you to eat the food you brought from Earth? (2) Explain the source of food energy for your colony once it is established and stable (after you will have eaten all the food you brought with you). (3) Explain the role of the very important organisms you needed to bring in the food chain, and how they contribute to both the flow of energy as well as the maintenance of stable atmospheric conditions that allow life as we know it to exist. (4) What do we call that type of organism in a food web, and (5) what do we call the organisms that consume it?

2.) A scientist wants to the effects of natural selection on grass height, which is a heritable trait. She sets up an experiment where two pastures are arranged side-by-side. Both pastures are the same size with the same type of soil and both receive the same amount of fertilizer and water. One pasture receives a herd of cattle that are allowed to over-graze that pasture for a year, while the other pasture does not. At the end of the experiment seeds from grasses taken out of each pasture are planted, and allowed to grow for two months in a laboratory, then the average heights of the resulting grass plants associated with each pasture are to be measured. (1) Create a hypothesis that accounts for the ideas of natural selection to explain what this researcher will see in terms of average grass plant height that results from the seeds taken from each pasture. (2) Then explain the basis for your hypothesis while correctly including the following terms in your explanation: differential reproduction, beneficial trait, allele frequency, and selection pressure.

3.) (1) Provide a detailed comparison between eukaryotic cells with prokaryotic cells. (2) Describe the range of organisms that may be encountered for each type. (3) Discuss at least four important cell structures that may be found in one type but not the other. (4) Describe a function for each structure discussed in part (3).


(A) There are two slightly different versions of the genetic code “language.” When the genetic code is copied from DNA so that it can be used to produce proteins it is said to be “transcribed.” When the transcribed genetic information is then used to synthesize a protein what is that process called?

(B) Describe the process of protein synthesis in a cell. Correctly include the following terms: ribosome, t-RNA, DNA, m-RNA, amino acid, polypeptide, and ATP.

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