14 PEER RESPONSES DUE IN 16 HOURS – EACH SET OF 2 HAS ITS OWN INSTRUCTIONSLong Term PlanningRespond to at least two classmates’ postings.ROSEMARY’S POST:Of the eight instructional unit types introduced in this chapter, choose one, describe it, and tell why it is your preferred choice.I will be using a project/problem-based learning unit. With this instructional unit, the students will play detective and help them become engaged in learning. The instructional unit focuses on the students, and more specifically, students working together in smaller groups. Hansen, Buczynski, & Puckett (2015) states, “PBL typically group students into teams to respond to real-world questions, problems, or challenges through an extended inquiry process and then to construct a presentation to share their product or findings.”Using the formatting for a PBL unit plan provided in table 7.1 in your textbook, outline your own PBL unit.Name of Project: Identify the Thirteen ColoniesSubject/Course/Grade Level: Social Studies/6-8th gradeUnit Duration & Timeline: 3-4 weeksTeacher Team Members: Teachers, Librarians, Parents, etc.Goals & Objectives Necessary to Accomplish the Goals:The student will demonstrate knowledge of the colonies and the factors that shaped colonial North America.Similarities and differences between colonial economies, politics, and ways of life.Physical and human characteristics of national colonial regions.Verbally identify 3 motives for exploring the colonial regions, e.g., religion, expansion, trade, and wealth, with 80% accuracy.Distinguish between New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies by coloring and identifying the colonial regions on a 100% map.Understand the emergence of significant regional differences in the colonies by completing a bulleted graphic organizer based on lecture notes with 90% accuracy.Given a graphic organizer, students will contrast the economies of the three major colonial regions: New England, Middle, and Southern with 80% accuracy.Given a graphic organizer, students will compare geography’s impact on the three major colonial regions’ economies. Understand how settlers’ backgrounds influenced their values, priorities, and daily lives.Create a historical fiction blog or infogram or digital (postcard) that identifies a colonial region’s unique traits and describes life in that region. Students projects will include:Three reasons why you moved to the colonial region.Two reasons why you did not settle in the other region.Writing that is free of spelling and grammatical errors.A colorful image depicting at least one of the colonial region’s best features.Standards/CCSS/21st Century Competencies:CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.8Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.Project Summary: Students will be working together in three or four groups to research the Thirteen Colonies and how they came to be. Each team or group will choose a colony from the Thirteen Colonies and write a background history about them and choose that colony. Students will focus on why the Thirteen Colonies shaped early-day America. Plus, they will be able to research who settled these colonies and why.Driving Question: I will open the discussion by asking them what they know about the thirteen colonies before starting. I would also ask them how would they have settled the colonies? What was the big thing that most people wanted when these new colonies began? What were the New England Colonies? Middle or Breadbasket Colonies? Southern Colonies?Entry Event: I would discuss how life was much different from how we live now, and I would also discuss why they settled in these colonies. I would also discuss who had founded them and settled them.Products that demonstrate outcome learning: students can create many ways to show how much they understand the information. For example, the students can use visual content: posters, pictures, SMART boards, tactile, and charts to show what they know about the information. The students can also use audio (if they prefer it) using music because they can make a song or have a rap song related to the Thirteen Colonies. For writing and reading, they can share their thoughts with the class about the Thirteen Colonies.Individual: Specific content and competencies to be assessed: Each student will have an important role for each group. Every group will have three to five questions. Every student is accountable for each question. At the end of the week, they will get back together with their groups and review what they have discovered for their responses. This means that the work has been equally given. The students will be able to look at everyone’s work, and as an educator, I can see how much they are understanding, based on their knowledge, answers, and how much they are involved with their groups. They can also write in their journals about what they have learned during the week.Team: Specific content and competencies to be assessed: Every group can listen and learn from their group members’ answers. In the end, each group, as a class, will show the contrast and compare them to the other groups’ projects. These students may write down something that they have learned from the other groups that they may not think of or think about doing.Public Audience: Faculty Members, Judges, Teachers, Staff, ParentsResources needed: Library, Parents, and Teachers.Computers or Laptops with the Internet, SMARTboard, Visual Aid EquipmentArt Supplies (Markers, Paper or Posterboards, Colored Pens, etc.)Printer (Ink)Projector (Might Not Need)(Just in Case We Need It)Reflection Methods (individual, team, and/or whole class): Class review what they have learned about the Thirteen Colonies and their classmates’ projects.Final Product: Every group will summarize the evidence that they found and collected to the educator beforehand. Their summary will support their project and investigation. Though the project allows for various aptitudes, every group needs to give evidence and analyze the questions they have answered following the information they discovered. Each group member shall hand in their part of the project.Assessment Strategies: All students will write a summary of the three to five questions about the Thirteen Colonies. Each student will develop a problem for a member of their group. Each group will have another set of three to five questions that may be asked by their classmates. This will give them a better understanding of the Thirteen Colonies and deliver knowledge as an educator if they understand the evidence presented.References:Hansen, C.B., Buczynski, S., & Puckett, K.S. (2015). Curriculum and Instruction for the 21st Century. Bridgepoint Education. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/ (Links to an external site.)Word Press. (N.D.). Lesson plan: Thirteen Colonies: Retrieved from https://www.mtvt.org/lesson-plan-thirteen-colonies/CIARA’S POST:The Instructional Model that I choose is· Nested units are those that target specific skills (social skills, thinking skills, or performance skills) within a single subject area. I choose Nested skill because my approach to teaching is like the analogy used when tryin to get another to understand how to accomplish big task it is said: ” How does one eat an entire cake to themselves, one bit at a time.” I like to focus on one lesson at a time, targeting specific skills for example,” getting the students to think and ask questions.” This is much like Nested units I the same sense that it also is specific to a skill that the teacher is focused on teaching pithing the single subject.Name of Project: Atoms and MoleculesSubject/Course/Grade Level: Physical Science/Module 1: The basics / 8th   gradeUnit Duration & Timeline: 2 weeksTeacher Team Members: Teachers, Science lab teacher,Goals & Objectives Necessary to Accomplish the Goals:    Attend lab class and   complete labCCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.6-8.1 (Links to an   external site.)Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical   textsProject Summary: Discover what atoms and molecules are made up of.   Distinguish between different kinds of atoms and different kinds of   molecules. Examine the substances they make up, as well as how those   substances change.Driving Question: Nearly everything around you is made up of tiny little   units called atoms. This questions will draw the students to now wanting to   discover more on how this can be a true statement. This will encourage the   students to observe and experiment to understand what atom is and how can it create   something like a book.Entry Event:  I will discuss how everything is made out of atoms, I   will ask the students what are some of their favorite things   and also point out that those things are also atoms.  I will   discuss how the creation process has no end and then get into exploring the   things around us. I will illustrate as many concepts as possible with   experiments.Products that demonstrate outcome learning:Students will have knowledge of the 116 basic kinds of atoms   in creation, and understand how this number can increase. The students will   engage in hands-on experience that will help bring those concepts to the   point of comprehension by learning how to search out for the facts and finds   answers.Individual: Specific content and competencies to be assessedStudent will be assessed on the properties of molecule and   atoms.Students will also be assessed on conducting an experiment on   salt and being able to identify if it is made up of molecules or atoms   .Team: Specific content and competencies to be assessedStudents will work together as a team in when examining the   substances of molecules and will be assessed on collaboration and   participation.Public Audience: NONEResources NeededSmall, clear glassA 9-volt batteryScissors            Tap waterBaking SodaTwo 9-inch pieces of insulated wire.      Some   TapeTap waterA spoonReflection Methods (individual, team,and/or whole class)Journal/Learning LogEtc.Final Product : Presentation of the lab assignment and Individual   Journals with observations, diagram and summary.Assessment Strategies: Students will complete the journal lab report and   demonstrate the ability to follow direction and perform the lab.Daily Lesson PlanningRespond to at least two classmates’ postings.SYDNEY’S POST:The six common pitfalls of lesson planning include: unclear learning objectives, lack of assessment, lack of enough formative assessment, learning objective does not match assessment, uninteresting hook, and passive learning (Hansen, et. al., 2015). Learning objectives should be clear and concise. Instructors can get too bogged down in teaching and forget to ensure that students are grasping the steps of the lesson, and that can only be done with more than one formative assessment.  Engagement does not equal understanding, so it can be easy to miss the objectives of the plan; however, there is a balance because students should be engaged from the start to avoid further issues during the lesson (Hansen, et al. 2015). While lectures and quiet learning is more manageable, students can only grasp the lesson if they are more invested with their education.Valerie seems to be very invested with her lesson and seems to have the types of instructional methods figured out, but she is lacking in ensuring that her students are grasping the lesson during the lesson. This is one of the pitfalls teachers make because they focus on the lesson instead of the students (Hanse, et. al., 2015). It can be very overwhelming if all the information is thrown at once without mastering each step. I would ask her if she can place herself among her students and think of a way, assessment, or activity that she can use to demonstrate her understanding of the standard. Almost reflect back at her time as a student. She could also place students in groups based on ability, so she can challenge her more advances and eager students while providing more assistance for those who need the extra help. Then once she can assess that each group has grasped the lesson, she could mix up the groups so that they can learn from each other. I think Valerie should utilize the 5E lesson plan so she can engage her students and break down each part of her lesson to better understand what she hopes to achieve for the standard she is trying to teach.ReferencesHansen, C.B., Buczynski, S., & Puckett, K.S. (2015). Curriculum and Instruction for the 21st Century. Bridgepoint EducationBRITMEY’S POST:Hello, classmates and Instructor Patterson Congratulations on making it to the final discussion.Discuss the six most common pitfalls that research uncovered that novice educators make when planning lessons.Unclear learning objectives- teachers focus on the lesson itself rather than what students should know. To help with this pitfall, teachers can think of students when planning and write an “I can” statement at the end (Hansen et al., 2015).Assessment of understanding not administered- Teachers fall into this pit when they keep teaching without checking to see if students understand. To change this, the teacher can make sure they give students chances to express what they have learned so far (Hansen et al., 2015).Failure to collect multiple formative assessments during a lesson- Formative assessments often happen during a lesson. Teachers can make the mistake of not collecting data to track student progress. Teachers can change this by asking students to explain or apply information learned (Hansen et al., 2015).Assessment fails to match learning objective- When the assessment doesn’t show if students fully understand the standard, there has been a misstep in instruction and product. Teachers can plan with a goal in mind first, then assessment (Hansen et al., 2015).Lesson plan lacks engaging start- When this happens, students are often not engaged in the lesson therefore unmotivated to continue listening. This can be reversed if the students feel connected to what they are about to learn by leading with a prior learned experience (Hansen et al., 2015).Students are passive recipients- Passive learners occur when students listen to the teacher most of the lesson. Instead, try and switch between PowerPoint/lecture to a discussion, movement, and hands-on instruction. (Hansen et al., 2015, 8.5)Answer question number three: “Valerie claims to use three different planning models: direct instruction, inquiry-based (specifically, the 5E model), and social interaction, depending on the day, the objective, and the activity. Critique her match of models with the lesson purpose. Offer your own examples of each of these models for a curricular area of your choice.”  (Hansen et al., 2015)Valerie’s found a way for planning lessons in an organized way that works for her and her students. I think because she’s new to creating lesson plans sticking to a schedule is a good start. I would suggest that Valerie switch up the models and extend the same lesson a day or two for students to do more research, collaboration, and self-discovery. For Valerie’s Monday’s lesson that uses direct instruction to introduce key terms of the week, she could have piqued students’ interest a little bit by starting with the inquiry-based model. Students would have to access prior knowledge and have fun hypothesizing the new unit. I like her lab and research lessons because students are actively involved in the learning. I would do research first and then build models because that could lead to her next day’s activity where students are in groups building models and preparing for a presentation. That is where the bulk of students’ time should be is discussing ideas, putting together research findings, and collaborating for social interactions. She’s on the right track and must keep in mind that planning with objectives and assessment will ensure that her students learn what the standard is expecting them to know.Emotional Intelligencerespond to at least two other postsSHEMAIAH’S POST:Emotional intelligence refers to one’s ability to understand and describe one’s emotions (EQI.com). More specifically, emotional intelligence outlines the behaviors that are exhibited in instances when describing, communicating, and managing emotions that are experienced individually or within others (EQI.com). This week I discovered that humans began to exhibit emotional intelligence during the infancy stage. This fact was unknown to me before now. I also learned that while emotional intelligence is embedded within a human’s makeup, emotional intelligence can be cultivated as well. This makes me consider babies who are placed in foster care and infants who are abused, because it correlates with one’s emotional intelligence. This fact provides an explanation for children who are unable to describe one’s emotional state or individuals who are unable to understand the emotions of others. As a classroom teacher, I often wonder why some students exhibit a higher level of emotional understanding as it relates to one’s emotional intelligence, however the reading this week has provided clarity.Moreover, when I consider my emotional intelligence, I am hopeful that it will allow me to provide service to individuals effectively. I also believe that my emotional intelligence will serve as an asset to the groups I will belong to. I currently have a high level of emotional intelligence. As a future human service professional, I am planning to use this skill to understand others and relate to their emotional barriers or concerns. My emotional intelligence will allow me to tailor services on an individualized basis so that services may be rendered in the manner that is most appropriate for each client. As my emotional intelligence relates to collaborating within the group setting, I believe that my emotional intelligence will allow me to address conflict and create cohesion within the group setting. My high emotional intelligence will allow me to help others who may not possess high intelligence and will help to understand each group member. Additionally, it will allow me to develop and nurture group relationships.Finally, in order to continue to improve my emotional intelligence I will continue to research ways to help others develop emotional intelligence so that the groups I belong to will be filled with individuals that possess high emotional intelligence. In addition to this, I can continue to research ways to express myself more effectively so that trusting relationships may be formed.EQI.com. (n.d.). Definition of emotional intelligence [Web page]. Retrieved from http://eqi.org/eidefs.htm#InnateDAWN’S POST:Emotional IntelligenceEmotional intelligence or emotional quotient is the ability to control or managed your own emotions. This ability is a self-awareness of how we deal with stress and overcome challenges, or whether we can identify and sympathize with others. Our emotions can ultimately change the course of any situation or conflict. The way we manage our own emotions could determine someone else behavior in response to the conflict. The author in EQI.com (n.d) described is as, ‘emotional intelligence is the innate potential to feel, use, communicate, recognize, remember, describe, identify, learn from, manage, understand and explain emotions” (EQI.com). Some of these emotions are learned depending on a person’s lifestyle or trauma.Did you discover something that you were not aware of before in relation to your own emotional intelligence?Over the years, I have learned that I many times lack empathy for others. This is a characteristic that I have made much effort to change. While I can identify with a situation or crisis, I don’t always respond with emotion which cause people to believe I do not care.How does your emotional intelligence impact (a) your current or future career in human services and (b) your performance in groups?I have continued to work on my own emotions and not always allowing others to see what I am feeling. Although, I believe it’s or to show emotion, I also believe that everyone does not need to be directly affected by your emotions at the moment. In my profession, I have learned to respond appropriately and not always include emotions. This can be more effective when dealing with others who may be in conflict. I have also learned that every person that lashes out may be going through their own turmoil at the time so responding with emotions could further impact the situation. In groups, we must be careful with our emotions and being defensive at others input, ideas, or criticism. The way we respond could impact the groupthink, group participation or cohesion, and success of the task.What can you do to continue to improve in this area?There are areas that can be improved in all of us. I believe that I can improve in first, allowing someone to complete their thought in its entirety and then not responding hastily. Then can sometimes cause conflict or combativeness from the other party. We must remember to not respond or make decisions based on our feelings or emotions. This could change the outcome of the conversation.ReferenceEQI.com. (n.d.). Definition of emotional intelligence [Web page]. Retrieved from http://eqi.org/eidefs.htm#InnateHenman, L. (n.d.). Groups as systems [PDF file]. http://www.henmanperformancegroup.com/articles/group-systems.pdfDiscussion – Reader Responsecomment on the posts of two classmatesBRIDGET’S POST:From the materials provided for this lesson, I’ve learned how to write an analysis essay.  There are two basic types of analysis essays, process and casual.  The process analysis essay explains how to do something and is an instructional essay.  The casual essay is an essay that is defined as “cause and effect”.  In other words, predicting the outcome based on a certain action.  Although I find the causal analysis to be a little less complicated for me personally, I did my did a process analysis for my essay assignment.  I felt I needed to be challenged and trying to break down a process step-by-step gave me a challenge and forced me to think.  I ended up enjoying the assignment, because I had to dig deep to think about what I can do well enough to research and explain.ALYVIA’S POST:After reading and watching the lectures from module three, I have taken away many things. Causal Analysis essays are simply a cause and effect essay whereas a process analysis is a bit different. Process analysis is a step by step essay that describes how to, how will, and how did things happen in order. When writing a process essay, you should be teaching your audience how to do something in order. There should be multiple stages with different steps describing those stages. Having introduction to the stages is important. This can be written in first or third person. A causal analysis can be used when writing other types of essays as well. It is much different then the process analysis style but has pretty much the same essay structure. I have taken away a pretty good understanding of this module. I’ve written causal analysis essays in the past for school but I don’t recall ever writing a process analysis essay. Although I don’t recall writing a process analysis, I do not think It will be hard. The most I will struggle with is figuring out a topic for my essay. After reviewing all information on module three, the process analysis catches my attention more than a casual essay. If you had to write on either causal analysis or process analysis, which style would you choose?Discussion – The Perfect Sandwichcomment on the posts of two classmatesALYVIA’S POST:A sandwich is one of the easiest foods to make at any time of the day. I can say eating sandwiches for lunch is one of my favorite things to do. The ingredients are most likely found around your house without having to go out and buy anything for it. Making sandwiches does not require much thought or hard work. There are all sorts of sandwiches as in peanut butter sandwiches, turkey sandwiches, tuna sandwiches, and the list goes on. But let’s get this straight; what really makes a sandwich a sandwich?  There are so many opinions on what a sandwich really is. Is a sandwich determined by its size? maybe the type of meat that goes on it? Or could it be defined by a certain bread that is used to make it? Personally growing up, I was taught my parents definition of what a sandwich was and what it was not. Poboys were always considered a sandwich to me but a hot dog was not. A burger was not considered a sandwich but a italian meatball sub was. In all reality I believe a sandwich can be anything that consists of two slices of bread but many people can differ.I consider a good ole turkey and ham to be a perfect sandwich. Who could ever go wrong with that? Before I start making my sandwich I normally toast my bunny bread. While the bread is toasting I take out the turkey and ham as well as the mayo, lettuce and cheese. I always pass the tomatoes because I hate them!. Once the toaster pops, I pull the toasted bread out and onto a plate. I always start with spreading out my mayo on both slices of bread. I then take two slices of turkey and two slices of ham and place all four pieces of meat on one slice of bread. After that I grab the lettuce and chop off one piece to add to the same slice of bread the meat is on. I then spread my cheddar cheese on my bread. Lastly, I fold my sandwich together. I find it easier to eat my sandwich when it is cut so I usually cut it in half. Also knowing how much the bread dries my throat, I grab a water out of the fridge and head off to eat my meal. You could never go wrong with a homemade sandwich! The process of my sandwich making is so easy and simple it makes a perfect accomplishment. Try it next time you get hungry for a sandwich!BRIDGET’S POST:What is a sandwich?  Is it some meat shoved between two pieces of bread? Does a sandwich even need two pieces of bread?  Better yet, does a sandwich need bread at all?  I’m going take the traditional approach.   A sandwich  must meet certain criteria.  A sandwich can still be a sandwich with a variety of fillers.  You can have a ham sandwich, turkey sandwich, tuna sandwich or even a grilled cheese sandwich.  What you cannot have is a hotdog sandwich or a taco sandwich.  I’d argue that you cannot even have a hamburger sandwich.  Why?  Because it’s all in the bread. A sandwich absolutely must consist of two separate pieces of sliced bread.  That bread can be hand-sliced, toasted, grilled or straight out of a packet, but there has to be two slices.  Buns of any type do not count.  Other forms of bread do not count.  Sorry burgers, dogs and tacos.  I love you, but you’re not a sandwich.My optimal sandwich is a club sandwich.  Which making this delicacy, start with two quality slices of bread.  Of course some type of homemade bread is best, but I am just as partial to two fresh slices of off-the-shelf white loaf bread.  The key is lightly toasting the bread.  The bread should be toasted just enough to add some texture without changing the color or making the bread crunchy.  Next, gently add your mayo.  Always choose a mayo that has some zest and real flavor.  Not all mayonnaise is created equal.  When I apply mayo, I do it with a loving touch.  Gently dip the knife into the jar and apply the mayo to the bottom slice of bread in a circular motion.  I never go side-to-side and never do both slices of bread.  Some rules should never be broken.  On top of the bottom slice of mayo-caressed, I lovingly add the meat.  With a club sandwich, the meat is the key.  I like freshly sliced meats from the deli, not packets of mystery meat you buy off the rack.  The key to any worthy club sandwich is consistency in the meats.  The slices should be of equal proportions.  I like to add a bottom layer of ham, a slice of American cheese, another layer of turkey,, another layer of good American cheese, then the most important ingredient, several slices of good, freshly cooked crispy bacon.  I like my bacon just crispy enough to have some crunch, but not so well done as to curl up and not fit well on the sandwich.  On top of the bacon, while it is still sizzling hot, add some cold shredded lettuce, and some tart dill pickle slices.  No tomatoes, please!  However, I will indulge you if you prefer tomatoes, just keep them away from my sandwich.  The last step to creating the perfect club sandwich is the cut.  A good club sandwich can’t be properly enjoyed unless it’s cut into quarters.  I like to start at the top right corner and slice diagonally to the bottom left, then repeat the process in reverse, slicing up from the bottom right to the top left.  This is how my favorite drive in does it, and I am absolutely convinced that this critical step makes the club sandwich superior to all other sandwiches.  I believe if you follow these steps, with love and affection, you too will discover the wonders of the perfect sandwich, loaded with all kinds of goodness.Discussion – For Want of a Nailcomment on the posts of two classmatesDILLON’S POST:Three years ago, a couple of buddies and I had planned at trip to Colorado to go snow skiing. We were gonna drive to Dallas and catch a plane to Denver, where we could then take a rental car to the slopes. As we were on our way to Dallas, we got into a bad wreck that totaled my brand new truck, broke my nose, and gave me a few more bumps and bruises. We managed to get an Uber to the airport in time to still catch our plane. When we arrived in Denver, we were waiting to pickup my luggage but it never came. After two hours of waiting we finally located it. Just when I thought the trip couldn’t get any worse, we were unable to rent a car because we were all under twenty-five years of age. It had turned into a domino effect of terrible events and I was over it. Needless to say, it was the worst trip of my life.KYLEIGH’S POST:When I was 16 years old, I started my first ever savings account. I was thrilled, because it was my first “big girl” move, and I just knew I would succeed in the adult world. Needless to say, Dave Ramsey was my homeboy, and I was determined to make smart financial decisions. The following summer, I worked many jobs. These jobs included being a daycare worker, a nanny, and the occasional swimming lessons teacher. After each paycheck, I put a certain amount of money away, like the responsible adult!Finally, when I turned 18, I decided to get my first-ever debit card. I had officially made it. I begin to make purchases left and right, I moved across the world, and swiped that card anywhere I could! Now before I continue, it is important to know that I was aware of my spending, however, I was not aware of the phrase- “transfer your savings into your checking.” Why was I not aware of this phrase? Because the banker never told me!My goal was to be financially smart, but instead, I had forgotten one little step, along with lacking a little bit of knowledge. The cause of me not being aware of the transfer of money led to years of 3 dollar charges on my account. Needless to say, these simple mistakes have caused me to reconsider my choices. If you have not learned anything from this unfortunate domino effect, learn this. You must transfer money from your savings into your checking for it to be 100% beneficial to you.Discussion  – Optional Process Playlistcomment on the posts of two classmatesKYLEIGH’S POST: (ATTACHED)BRIDGET’S POST:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZglqkCRNt8&list=PLbyuxXm9Vu4sG5kQez8l7KiWNUt4P7787

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